TAP Requirements

TAP Requirements

  • Complete the TA Basics introductory course in the theory and practice of transactional analysis and the four foundational courses in transactional analysis


  • Complete comparable courses in transactional analysis taught by a Certified Transactional Analyst.  These courses must include at least 50 contact hours and cover all of the listed objectives (see below).
  • Complete an evaluation that lists all the objectives and asks participants to evaluate whether they achieved them.

Behavioral Objectives for the TAP Modules (or equivalent training)

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By the end of this course participants will be able to:

  • List three transactional analysis concepts
  • Describe three ways TA can be applied in a counseling practice, classroom or organization

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By the end of this course the participants will be able to:

  • Name the three ego states
  • Describe the functioning of each ego state
  • Describe one way that rackets develop
  • Describe three different types of transactions
  • Describe the predictable transactional patterns called games
  • Identify positive and negative strokes
  • Describe two possible childhood influences on life patterns or scripts

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In the first four modules participants learn to apply Transactional Analysis theory in their own lives and to begin to use it in their practices.  Additional advanced modules focus on application of Transactional Analysis theory.

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Personality and Ego States: Structural Analysis

By the end of this course participants will be able to:

  • Explain the influence of introjected/internal parent ego states in their life
  • Use four ways of diagnosing ego states
  • Describe the development of each ego state
  • Construct an ego-gram
  • Identify a change they want to make in their own ego-gram
  • Identify at least three strengths in each ego state
  • Draw Berne’s second order diagram of the Child and Parent ego states
  • Draw a diagram showing subdivisions of functional Child and Parent ego states
  • Identify two strengths related to Nurturing Parent, Controlling or  Critical Parent, Adapted Child, and Free Child

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Transactions, Strokes and Transactional Intervention in Conflicts. By the end of this course participants will be able to:

  • Differentiate complementary, crossed, and ulterior transactions
  • Name two advantages related to each of the above three types of transactions
  • Name two disadvantages related to each of the above three types of transactions
  • Use crossed transactions to change the course of conversations
  • Use positive unconditional strokes appropriately
  • Use positive conditional strokes appropriately
  • Use healthy negative conditional strokes appropriately
  • Name at least three ways of structuring time
  • Describe two ways to invite people to change how they structure time
  • Use one way to intervene transactionally to solve conflicts

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Habitual Painful Feelings (Rackets), and Destructive Patterns (Games)

By the end of this course participants will be able to:

  • Use two ways to invite change in beliefs that support painful feelings
  • Explain the connection between old patterns of thinking and feeling and current thinking/feeling patterns
  • Identify two common destructive interactional patterns that lead to painful feelings (games)
  • List two ways to intervene in games
  • Identify two ways to show the interaction patterns in games
  • Identify the three positions in the Karpman drama triangle and
  • Describe an alternative behavior to replace each of the three positions in the Karpman drama triangle
  • Explain each of the existential life positions
  • Identify at least two games in which they have been involved

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Life Patterns or Scripts

By the end of this course participants will be able to:

  • Explain how habitual painful feeling patterns (rackets) and destructive interactional patterns (games) advance limiting or self-destructive life patterns
  • Explain the difference between an injunction and a counter injunction
  • List two ways that early life decisions impact adult life
  • Explain how positive and negative script decisions develop
  • Use script analysis to understand their own life patterns,
  • Explain three ways to facilitate changing script decisions that are experienced as negative
  • List two ways that using transactional analysis can help clients understand their thoughts, feelings, and behavior
  • Explain  how to facilitate script change using Redecision Therapy
  • Explain  how to facilitate script change using stroke theory



Note: In order to use transactional analysis in practice, individuals should have completed the necessary training in their field or discipline and have the appropriate legal authorization to practice in that field.

More TAP information:

What is TAP?

Levels of Certification

TAP Certificates Form

TAP Hosting/Presenting

Find a TAP, TAAP, TAPI, or Certified ITAA Member